Duffus Castle, near Elgin, Moray, Scotland, was a motte-and-bailey castle and was in use from c.1140 to 1705. During its occupation it underwent many alterations. The most fundamental was the destruction of the original wooden structure and its replacement with one of stone. At the time of its establishment, it was one of the most secure fortifications in Scotland. At the death of the 2nd Lord Duffus in 1705, the castle had become totally unsuitable as a dwelling and so was abandoned.
Moray was an important part of the Pictish confederation. At the beginning of the 12th century the province was ruled by the mormaer, Angus, grandson of Lulach Macgillecomgan, who had succeeded Macbeth as King of Scots in 1057. Ferociously autarchic and highly distrustful of the expansion of the monarchy, Angus rebelled in 1130. The revolt was resolutely quashed by King David I,who immediately began to populate the province with nobles and people of his own choosing.
One significant arrival was Freskin (also known as Freskyn) who already owned an extensive estate in Lothian (Strabrock, now Uphall). He accepted lands at Duffus from King David I of Scotland. Freskin’s background is uncertain. The historical consensus amongst historians is that he was of Flemish background, the principle argument being that “Freskin” is a Flemish name. Undoubtedly, King David, himself a Normanized magnate with extensive estates in northern England and Normandy, granted lands to many nobles from Flanders as well as Normans. The unlikely alternatives are that he may have been an Anglo-Saxon or a Scot who fought for King David and his English general Edward Siwardsson in Moray. At that time, when Flemish nobles were referred to in writs by nationality (almost never), they were styled “Flandrensis”. Freskin appears in no contemporary sources, and was never referred to by his national origin. By the 13th century his descendents were referring to themselves as ‘de Moravia’ (‘of Moray’) and had become one of the more powerful families in northern Scotland.
It was Freskin who built the great earthwork and timber motte-and-bailey castle in c.1140. The motte was an immense man-made mound with steeply sloping sides and a wide and deep ditch that surrounded the base. Timber buildings would have stood on its flat top and would have been further protected by a wooden palisade placed around the edge of the summit. The motte was accessed from the bailey. This is a wide stretch of earth elevated above the surrounding area but not as high as the motte. At Duffus, the motte would have been reached by steps set into the mound. The motte contained the buildings necessary to sustain its inhabitants – brew and bake houses, workshops and stables – as well as the living accommodation.
Freskin’s direct line ended in 1270 and the castle passed into the ownership of Sir Reginald Cheyne, the younger. In around 1350 the last Cheyne died leaving his estate to his daughter who was married to Nicholas,the second son of the 4th Earl of Sutherland. The Sutherlands, themselves were descended from Freskyn and remained in their possession until 1705 when the castle was abandoned.
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